What Is Vaccine?
Vaccines are products that save people from many different and varied kinds of diseases. Vaccines sometimes help avoid even dangerous and deadly diseases. Contrary to the most medicines that treat or cure diseases, vaccines prevent disease in the first place.Read More
Types of Vaccines: Live-attenuated vaccines: Live-attenuated vaccines are used to protect against: Inactivated vaccines: Subunit and conjugate vaccines: Toxoid vaccines: Side Effects of Vaccines:
Vaccines contain the germs that those vaccines are supposed protect the humans from. For example, polio vaccine contains polio virus or Hib vaccine contains Hib bacteria, but these germs exist in the vaccine in attenuated or killed form. Sometimes lab-made protein that imitates the virus is also used in vaccine.
When vaccine, which contains weakened or inactivated germs, is given to person, it stimulates their immune system. As a result, body starts making antibodies or initiates procedures to fight the disease exactly like if body was actually exposed to that disease. Therefore, if body is ever exposed to that disease in future, their immune system will be acquainted with that disease and would be prepared to fight it.
After getting vaccinated, person develops immunity to that disease, without having to get the disease in actual. This is what, which makes vaccines such powerful medicine that unlike most medicines, which treat or cure diseases, vaccines prevent them from happening.
There are different types of vaccines based on what these vaccines are made of. There are 4 major types of vaccines:
• Live-attenuated vaccines
• Inactivated vaccines
• Subunit and conjugate vaccines
• Toxoid vaccines
In live-attenuated vaccines, real time live bacteria or viruses are used but these viruses are weakened and attenuated to such a degree that they don’t damage.
Live-attenuated vaccines create a long and lasting immunization from disease because it is similar to actual disease. However, this kind of medicines is not suitable for people who do not have proper immune system or people who have had organ transplant. Such people must consult doctor first before taking such a vaccine.
• Yellow fever
• Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR)
As the name suggests, inactivated vaccines use the virus or bacteria in a vaccine which is inactivated or killed. These kinds of vaccines are not considered as efficient compared to live-attenuated vaccines. Since these are not extremely efficient, person may require several doses of it over time in order to get ongoing immunity from diseases. These subsequent doses are referred as booster shots
Inactivated vaccines are used to protect against:
• Hepatitis A
These kinds of vaccines do not contain a whole bacteria or virus but instead contain polysaccharides (sugars) or proteins from the surface of germs or contains their capsid (casing around germ). These polysaccharides or proteins are the parts that our immune system recognises as ‘foreign’, and initiates body response. These foreign particles are considered as antigens and our body starts producing anti-bodies to fight them.
Just like inactivated vaccines, person is needed to take frequent booster shots of such vaccine to ensure ongoing immunity.
These kinds of vaccines are used to protect against:
• Hib disease
• Hepatitis B
• HPV (Human papillomavirus)
• Whooping cough
• Pneumococcal disease
• Meningococcal disease
These kinds of vaccines use toxin produced by the germ than the germ itself. Therefore, this vaccine type provides immunity from the parts of germ that cause disease. Like some other types of vaccines, taker may need booster shots to get ongoing protection against diseases.
Toxoid vaccines are used to protect against:
Just like any other medication, vaccines can have side effects too. In most cases these are usually very mild. Most common minor reactions to an immunization are
• Soreness or redness around the injection site
• Mild fever
Vaccines prevents millions of deaths each year. Rare side effects can manifest upon using vaccines but benefits of vaccines usually outweigh their trivial side effects.
Types of Vaccines:
Live-attenuated vaccines are used to protect against:
Subunit and conjugate vaccines:
Side Effects of Vaccines: